Cookies shall be understood as IT data, including without limitation text files, stored on users’ terminals with the purpose of using websites. These files make it possible to recognise a user’s terminal and display a website in a relevant way, adapted to user’s preferences. Cookies usually contain a website name they come from, time of being stored on the terminal and a unique number.
Cookies are used for the purpose of adapting contents of websites to user’s preferences and optimising the use of websites. They are also used to prepare anonymous, aggregate statistics which help us understand how a user benefits from websites, which allows for improvement of their structure and contents, excluding user’s personal identification.
Usually, we use two types of cookies – "session" and "fixed". The former ones are temporary files which remain on a user’s terminal until he logs out from a website or closes an application (a web browser). The “fixed” files remain on a user’s terminal for the time defined in cookie parameters or until they are deleted manually by the user. Cookies used by partners of a website operator, including without limitation website users, are subject to their own privacy policies.
Cookies may be divided into the following way:
A. Types of cookies due to their indispensability to provide a service:
|Required||they are absolutely indispensable for correct operations of a website or features to be used by a user|
They are important for operations of the site:
|Business||They allow for implementing a business model on the basis of which a website is made available; if they are blocked, not all features of the site will be unavailable, but services may be provided at a lower level due to impossibility for the website owner to generate revenue to finance operations of the site. They include e.g. advertising cookies.|
B. Types of cookies due to time placed on user’s end device:
|Session cookies||a cookie placed for the time of using a browser (session); it is deleted after it is closed|
|Persistent cookies||they are not deleted after the browser is closed and remain on the user’s end device for some time or without validity date, depending on settings of the website owner|
C. Due to their origins – depending on website administrator managing cookies:
|First-party cookie||a cookie placed directly by the owner of the website which is visited|
|Third-party cookie||a cookie placed by third parties whose site elements were enabled by the website owner|
Note: cookies may be enabled by an administrator using scripts or components found on partner’s servers in another location, another country or even in a different legal system. If a website administrator enables components originating from outside its system, standard terms and conditions of the cookies policy may apply other than the privacy /cookies policy of the website administrator.
D. Due to purpose they are used for:
|Site configuration||they allow for setting features and services on the site|
|Site security and reliability||they allow for verifying authenticity and optimising site performance|
|Authentication||they allow for providing information to a user when he/she is logged in, as a result of which the website may present relevant options and features|
|Session status||they allow for recording information on how people use the website. They may relate to the most often visited websites or any error messages displayed on some pages. Cookies used to record a "session status" help improve services and increase comfort of browsing through pages.|
|Processes||they allow for smooth operations of the website and features available there|
|Advertisements||they allow for displaying advertisements which are more interesting for users and, at the same time, more valuable for publishers and advertisers, as well as customising ads; they may also be used to display advertisements outside the website (domain)|
|Location||they allow for adapting information displayed on the page to user’s location|
|Research and analysis, audience audit||they make it possible for website owners to understand user preferences better as well as improve and develop products and services through analysis. Usually a website owner or a research company collects information anonymously and processes data on trends without identifying personal data of particular users.|
E. Types of cookies due to interference in user’s privacy:
This includes cookies which are:
|Investigative||they are used for user tracking, but without collecting information allowing for identification of a particular user|
In general, an application used to browse through websites allows for saving cookies on a terminal by default. These settings may be changed so that automatic management of cookies is blocked in web browser settings or a user is informed each time cookies are sent to his terminal. Detailed information on the possibility and ways of dealing with cookies is available in application (web browser) settings. Limitation of using cookies may affect some features available on a website.